Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Evaluate Your Sources with the CRAAP Test
There is a lot of information out there, but how do you determine what is good information? Use the CRAAP Test! This tool considers 5 important criteria and can be applied to any print or electronic source.
"Media Bias Handout" 2019 by Ame Maloney under "Creative Commons Atribution-NonCommercial 4.0"
Currency: The timeliness of the information.
- When was the information published, posted, revised or updated?
- Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well?
- Are the links functional and current?
Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs.
- Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
- Who is the intended audience?
- Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
- Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
- Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper?
Authority: The source of the information.
- Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
- What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations?
- Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
- Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?
- Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source (examples: .com .edu .gov .org .net)?
Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the content.
- Where does the information come from? Are references and citations provided?
- Is the information supported by evidence?
- Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
- Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
- Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?
- Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors?
Purpose: The reason the information exists.
- What is the purpose of the information? Is it to inform, teach, sell, entertain or persuade?
- Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
- Is the information fact, opinion or propaganda?
- Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
- Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?
Adapted from the CRAAP Test created by Meriam Library at California State University, Chico
Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers
This e-book from PressBooks is a free online resource that can help you learn more about evaluating resources and checking facts.
Other Helpful Links and Documents
Ask a Question
Schedule an Appointment
Interlibrary Loan a BOOK
Request an ARTICLE
Evaluating Sources Checklists and Tools
Use this tool to help determine the quality of a journal article, book, website or any other source you are considering for your research.
Evaluating Sources Videos
How To Spot Fake News
Can you tell real from fake news? This game is designed to test your news sense.